Artificial insemination is a simple technique that involves depositing sperm in the uterus previously washed and trained in the laboratory (in vivo occur in the female genital tract). This technique requires that the semen sample has at least 4 million / ml sperm REM (without severe alteration of the morphology) and that women do not have blocked tubes. This technique is used in the following cases:
- minor alterations seminograma.
- Endometriosis leve.
- Unexplained infertility.
- Alteration of ovulation.
- coital difficulties (vaginitis, erectile dysfunction…).
To make an artificial insemination with spouse's evidence to the choice of technique is performed first, (seminograma, histerosalpingografía, serologías…), then the patient undergoes a cycle of controlled ovarian stimulation, Ideally get 2 a 4 mature follicles, an ultrasound monitoring is performed until the time of depositing the sample arrives.
The semen sample is prepared in the laboratory by a number of procedures called "sperm capacitation", which allow selection and concentration of progressive motile sperm to ensure the arrival of the same to the fallopian, while the substances and cells that should not reach the uterus are removed. The two methods most commonly used are the selection migration or "swim-up" and the density gradient.
Once processed in the laboratory, the semen sample is deposited into the uterine cavity using a flexible catheter, This process is painless and can be performed in the office or in the operating room as any analgesia is not necessary.
The pregnancy rate with this technique is approximately 15-20% increasing the number of cycles performed, although not recommended over 3 from 4 cycles before making any advanced assisted reproductive technique.
Sometimes it is necessary to use donor sperm, This would come from sperm banks sperm from anonymous donors, which they have been subjected to all physical and psychological tests required by law. The most frequent indications are often azoospermia husband; single women.